Friday, May 22, 2020

Essay Arguments for Environmental Conservation - 675 Words

Response 3: Arguments for Environmental Conservation Since the beginning of civilization humanity has adopted a subjugating stance toward nature. Ecological exploitation has become the de facto standard, contributing to the illusion of self-subsistence provided by modern society. This mindset is untenable given humanities reliance on the natural world, as best demonstrated by the critical importance of various parts of the environment to humanities continued existence. This includes the importance of biodiversity to medicinal advancement and climate adaptation, the role of insects in the renewal of the biosphere, and the importance of the environment for humanities psychological health. A huge number of modern medicines are derived†¦show more content†¦(31) In addition, biodiversity will be crucial for humanities continued survival in the case of climate change or widespread crop failures. The majority of people on earth are reliant on four crops for subsistence; wheat, rice , corn, and millet. (11) These crops are threatened by climate change and the spread of disease facilitated by modern transportation. If humanity is to survive such an eventuality it must be ready to draw upon the earth’s biodiversity for replacements. And while there are approximately 50 thousand plant species that could offer alternatives, this bank of resources is quickly thinning as various ecosystems are being destroyed. (11) Other services nature provides are more easily taken for granted. We depend on plant life to replenish the oxygen in the atmosphere, and on insects to replace nutrients in the soil. (31) These insects are especially vital, as they are part of the foundation of nearly all ecosystems. Without insects, plant species that rely on them for pollination would quickly become extinct, including many of the species we rely on for food. Following them would be species that feed on insects, as well as species which rely on vegetation as part of their habitats. Finally, as insects make the prime contribution to soil renewal, even non-insect pollinated plant life would begin to decline. (34) The result, according to Wilson, wouldShow MoreRelatedConservation Of Public And Private Partnerships1395 Words   |  6 PagesObserving conservation through various approaches supplies historians with a platform upon which to evaluate their arguments and evidence, while delving into the very essence of the conservation movement. Applying the Progressive Movement as the inception for conservation history, historians have clearly accorded the individuals in the bottom-up approach with a voice, rather than perpetuating an elitist view of the past. Additionally, the utilization of public/private partnerships as a method toRead MoreFunding Recreational Areas Into The Scholarship1279 Words   |  6 PagesBeyond conservation then, lies the sense that historians have frequently neglected to incorporate how preservation of specific recreational areas into the ir scholarship. This is vital considering that without this frame of reference, conservation is lost within the idea that it is separate from nature. As an attempt to explain this neglect is the awareness that â€Å"One group of critics has suggested that the complexity and stochasticity of natural processes invariably complicate attempts to preserveRead MoreAgricultural Act Of 2014 Essay1248 Words   |  5 Pagestwelve sections or titles. These titles include Commodities; Conservation; Trade; Nutrition; Credit; Rural Development; Research, Extension, and Related Matters; Forestry; Energy; Specialty Crops and Horticulture; Crop Insurance; and Miscellaneous (Agricultural Act of 2014: Highlights and Implications). The Conservation title encourages environmental stewardship and improved management practices. Prior to the 2014 farm bill the Conservation title has included over twenty different programs. AlthoughRead MoreThe Nature Of The Environment1279 Words   |  6 Pagesanother piece of nature and should act accordingly in order to protect the environment. They also all believed that in order to grow popularity for conservation practices, education—environmental education—is key to growing popularity for the environment. Finally, these figures all recognized that the environment does change overtime. The environmental evolution is a slow, natural process. However, human presence hastened the evolution, and the earth cannot maintain such an accelerated inorganic evolutionaryRead MoreRecycling Programs Essay1502 Words   |  7 PagesEnvironmental pollution has been a major concern to many stakeholders due to the related adversities that are associated with the practice. Huma n beings in general are well known to like having comfort and convenience at the minimum costs possible. The results of this has been the focus on the short term gains with little or no thought spared for the long term consequences of our behavior. Environmental problems are usually long term and the solution to these problems will only be realized at a higherRead MoreWhich One Comes First Economic Development or Environmental Conservation?710 Words   |  3 PagesEnvironmental problems mainly generated in the economic activity, therefore it should be resolved together with the economic activity. In both developed and developing countries, there is always an argument, stated that whether the economic development come first or the environmental conservation come first? The former follows the â€Å"develop first, conservation later† model while the latter follows the â€Å"conservation while development† model. For developing countries which also known as Third WorldRea d MoreProposed Property Acquisition Blue-Eyed Nellie Wildlife Management Area North Lily Property1032 Words   |  5 PagesThe environmental assessment (EA), Proposed Property Acquisition Blue-Eyed Nellie Wildlife Management Area North Lily Property, in reference to the NEPA Environmental Assessment Checklist, has the proper parts for a well-written assessment. The purpose and need statement is full of rich content allowing the reader to feel fully versed on the topic. It describes the property in question in detail along with the vegetation and animals populating the area. The ability to partake in the purchase isRead MoreSustainable Development : The Definition Of Sustainable Development1432 Words   |  6 Pagesfrom the 1950s, an economic boom raised optimism about living standards and development. Conversely, also during this period, the ongoing environmental crisis started forcing people to change their assumptions about development and progress (Pisani, 2006). After the population explosion in the 1950s and 1960s, scientists and economists were aware of the environmental repercussions of massive wasteful consumption, furthermore, publications such as Rachel Carsons The silent spring (1962) highlightedRead MoreReview Of Paula Gunn Allen s Academe741 Words   |  3 Pagesopportunities, and technology (even though the original intent was to serve British purposes). Although western culture has for the most part become well integrated with existing Indian culture, it has (in my opinion) had a harmful impact regarding environmental state within India. My father recalls times where Mumbai (large city in western India) was still a green with open spaces (an era before huge shopping malls and buildings). One of the few things that I recall from my brief visit to India was aRead MoreClimate Change and Public Policy Essay examples1503 Words   |  7 Pagestestify to the very real presence of climate change the world over, considerable denial of the phenomenon still exists. The argument has been made that evidence about climate change is a gross overstatement, or in some cases, a complete fabrication. Despite the evidence to the contrary, many interest groups with considerable political clout have successfully perpetuated the argument that documented changes in the environment are a product of natural cyclical changes in climate, and are not associate d

Thursday, May 7, 2020

Miles Davis s Jazz Society - 1295 Words

How do people discover Miles Davis in jazz society ? Miles Davis was born in Alton, Illinois, in May 25, 1926. Miles Davis has one brother and one sister. In his earlier life. Miles’s family decided to moved to East St. Louis, Illinois, Davis s father became a fortunate dentist at the age when miles was still a child. When he starting growing up at the 13 his father gave him a trumpet that could enjoy Miles’s life in activities in school music, and in a couple week Miles decided to become a allied with his high school band, while his coach happy to see him with a honor to be on his band, but also the coach makes him performed to see his strongest part and the weakness part, but miles 1945 after graduating from high school he decided to followed his dream to New York City, since New York was the popular space for artist performed jazz music back then. For the past , year miles had work with parker’s music and by the time it s hit 1945, 1946 and 1947. The sa me year Miles Davis All-Stars made their debut at the Savoy. To begin, Davis was signed to Columbia Records, He returned to New York created the first great incarnation of the Miles Davis Quintet and Charles Mingus. Their records explained the sound of cool jazz. He recorded a categories of albums of different diversity Miles Ahead (1957), Milestones , (1958), and Kind Of Blue (1959), which was the best selling jazz albums of all time. For the past of 1960s, Miles continued his achievement with theShow MoreRelatedLouis Armstrong And Jazz Age1128 Words   |  5 PagesThe 1920s was known as the Jazz Age, Francis Scott Fitzgerald said â€Å"it was an age of miracles, it was an age of art, it was an age of excess, and it was an age of satire. Music also plays a big role in The Great Gatsby. One singer that was popular in the 1920s was Louis Armstrong he was known as the King of Jazz. Louis Armstrong was born on August 4, 1901 in New Orleans, Louisiana. Armstrong was born and raised in New Orleans he was the son of a prostitute and an absent father. Louis ArmstrongRead MoreThe Music Of The Man Essay2181 Words   |  9 PagesWhen Jazz first appeared in the state of Louisiana, although it had African roots, it was highly looked down upon. It was considered the music of the â€Å"blacks†, with a negative connotation and was disregarded as being a music genre itself in comparison with classical and other types of music. African Americans faced racism and prejudice for enjoying and being jazz musicians, however African American women also encountered bigotry, sexism and prejudice along with racism. There were several female musiciansRead MoreThe Blues And Bebop Are Two Forms Of Jazz That Have Given1363 Words   |  6 PagesThe blues and bebop are two forms of jazz that have given us many amazing artists whose talents and arrangements still have relevancy in o ur society today. Because of their emergence, our musical inventory has expanded greatly. This essay will review these two forms of Jazz while comparing their similarities and difference while also discussing some of the artists who were within their musical genres. Progression to the Blues The blues is a genre of jazz that developed in its earliest developmentRead MoreWhat Makes John Coltrane?2416 Words   |  10 PagesWhen we are born into this World, some say we are born with no predefined path, others will say one s Destiny is already chosen. It is one of the many wonders of the Human experience to try and seek purpose and meaning in life, to be freed of the constraints society puts upon others. Many people living today do not know what path they are taking, they are walking blindly, in the dark. However, it is possible for one to open their eyes and to see the many opportunities that come their way and toRead MoreEssay about Jack Kerouac’s On The Road - The American Quest1740 Words   |  7 Pagesgeneral), and Kerouacs Spontaneous Prose method of writing. On The Road is an autobiographical first-person book written in 1951 and based on Kerouacs experiences of the late 1940s. At the time, America was undergoing drastic changes and the sense of sterility brought on by a mechanized Cold War era society resu lted in a feeling of existential dislocation for many. Numerous Americans began to experience a sense of purposelessness and the air was rife with disillusionment.   Kerouac was oneRead MoreThe Beat Generation Subculture Essay948 Words   |  4 Pagesthat rejects these standards and rebels against the norm. In the 1950s a group of American writers that exemplified this behavior formed. They were called the beat generation. The beat generation was particularly remarkable because although it was began by an exceptionally small group of people, its cultural influence was enormous. The beats rebelled against things like conformity and consumerism in the post World War II society. Their writing challenged both traditional American values and contemporaryRead MoreAngela Davis and Feminism Essay1562 Words   |  7 Pagesconsidered taboo and â€Å"out of the norm† in modern society. Throughout history, people have been harassed, discriminated against, and shunned for their â€Å"sexuality†. One person who knows this all too well is activist and author, Angela Davis. From her experiences, Davis has analyzed the weakness of global society in order to propose intellectual theories on how to change the perspective of sexuality. This research paper will explore the discussions of Angela Davis to prove her determination to combat inequalityRead MoreThe Black Freedom Movement of the 1950’s and 1960’s2001 Words   |  9 PagesMovement of the 1950’s and 1960’s captured the attention of millions†¦ As American Americans started streaming into American cities, or what American corporations call â€Å"†major markets† U.S. businesses sought to influence the consump tion patterns of these increasingly important black consumers.† I have chosen to discuss this title because I believe it had an extremely rich and interesting background to it as well as being able to involve many different aspects from history and society. I plan to layoutRead MoreJazz Influence On American Culture2034 Words   |  9 Pagesstyle of music that was created in the 20th century, Jazz has had a major impact on American culture. Originating from work songs African American slaves used to sing on plantations, the foundations of jazz first began as a three piece music group using instruments like the Fiddle, Banjo and the drum. These instruments formed a style known as Ragtime, which can be recognized as one of the first styles that marked the birth of jazz. Although jazz grew out of a lifestyle shaped by plantation life, overRead MoreThe American Dream and the Post War Era Essay1187 Words   |  5 Pagesatrocities of the war. In the 1930’s the American Dream was primarily focused on working hard, men providing for their famil ies, and trying to rise from the depression. In the 1940’s, post World War II things changed and consumerism and feminism began to play a key role along with many other factors. There are many ways to describe the American dream and what aspects were influential to it, such as World War II, modernism, new technology and entertainment. The 1940’s was an interesting and critical

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Twilight 22. HIDE-AND-SEEK Free Essays

string(94) " I found myself trying to think of excuses to stay, to see him first and then make my escape\." 22. HIDE-AND-SEEK It had taken much less time than I’d thought – all the terror, the despair, the shattering of my heart. The minutes were ticking by more slowly than usual. We will write a custom essay sample on Twilight 22. HIDE-AND-SEEK or any similar topic only for you Order Now Jasper still hadn’t come back when I returned to Alice. I was afraid to be in the same room with her, afraid that she would guess†¦ and afraid to hide from her for the same reason. I would have thought I was far beyond the ability to be surprised, my thoughts tortured and unstable, but I was surprised when I saw Alice bent over the desk, gripping the edge with two hands. â€Å"Alice?† She didn’t react when I called her name, but her head was slowly rocking side to side, and I saw her face. Her eyes were blank, dazed†¦ My thoughts flew to my mother. Was I already too late? I hurried to her side, reaching out automatically to touch her hand. â€Å"Alice!† Jasper’s voice whipped, and then he was right behind her, his hands curling over hers, loosening them from their grip on the table. Across the room, the door swung shut with a low click. â€Å"What is it?† he demanded. She turned her face away from me, into his chest. â€Å"Bella,† she said. â€Å"I’m right here,† I replied. Her head twisted around, her eyes locking on mine, their expression still strangely blank. I realized at once that she hadn’t been speaking to me, she’d been answering Jasper’s question. â€Å"What did you see?† I said – and there was no question in my flat, uncaring voice. Jasper looked at me sharply. I kept my expression vacant and waited. His eyes were confused as they flickered swiftly between Alice’s face and mine, feeling the chaos†¦ for I could guess what Alice had seen now. I felt a tranquil atmosphere settle around me. I welcomed it, using it to keep my emotions disciplined, under control. Alice, too, recovered herself. â€Å"Nothing, really,† she answered finally, her voice remarkably calm and convincing. â€Å"Just the same room as before.† She finally looked at me, her expression smooth and withdrawn. â€Å"Did you want breakfast?† â€Å"No, I’ll eat at the airport.† I was very calm, too. I went to the bathroom to shower. Almost as if I were borrowing Jasper’s strange extra sense, I could feel Alice’s wild – though well-concealed – desperation to have me out of the room, to be alone with Jasper. So she could tell him that they were doing something wrong, that they were going to fail†¦ I got ready methodically, concentrating on each little task. I left my hair down, swirling around me, covering my face. The peaceful mood Jasper created worked its way through me and helped me think clearly. Helped me plan. I dug through my bag until I found my sock full of money. I emptied it into my pocket. I was anxious to get to the airport, and glad when we left by seven. I sat alone this time in the back of the dark car. Alice leaned against the door, her face toward Jasper but, behind her sunglasses, shooting glances in my direction every few seconds. â€Å"Alice?† I asked indifferently. She was wary. â€Å"Yes?† â€Å"How does it work? The things that you see?† I stared out the side window, and my voice sounded bored. â€Å"Edward said it wasn’t definite†¦ that things change?† It was harder than I would have thought to say his name. That must have been what alerted Jasper, why a fresh wave of serenity filled the car. â€Å"Yes, things change†¦Ã¢â‚¬  she murmured – hopefully, I thought. â€Å"Some things are more certain than others†¦ like the weather. People are harder. I only see the course they’re on while they’re on it. Once they change their minds – make a new decision, no matter how small – the whole future shifts.† I nodded thoughtfully. â€Å"So you couldn’t see James in Phoenix until he decided to come here.† â€Å"Yes,† she agreed, wary again. And she hadn’t seen me in the mirror room with James until I’d made the decision to meet him there. I tried not to think about what else she might have seen. I didn’t want my panic to make Jasper more suspicious. They would be watching me twice as carefully now, anyway, after Alice’s vision. This was going to be impossible. We got to the airport. Luck was with me, or maybe it was just good odds. Edward’s plane was landing in terminal four, the largest terminal, where most flights landed – so it wasn’t surprising that his was. But it was the terminal I needed: the biggest, the most confusing. And there was a door on level three that might be the only chance. We parked on the fourth floor of the huge garage. I led the way, for once more knowledgeable about my surroundings than they were. We took the elevator down to level three, where the passengers unloaded. Alice and Jasper spent a long time looking at the departing flights board. I could hear them discussing the pros and cons of New York, Atlanta, Chicago. Places I’d never seen. And would never see. I waited for my opportunity, impatient, unable to stop my toe from tapping. We sat in the long rows of chairs by the metal detectors, Jasper and Alice pretending to people-watch but really watching me. Every inch I shifted in my seat was followed by a quick glance out of the corner of their eyes. It was hopeless. Should I run? Would they dare to stop me physically in this public place? Or would they simply follow? I pulled the unmarked envelope out of my pocket and set it on top of Alice’s black leather bag. She looked at me. â€Å"My letter,† I said. She nodded, tucking it under the top flap. He would find it soon enough. The minutes passed and Edward’s arrival grew closer. It was amazing how every cell in my body seemed to know he was coming, to long for his coming. That made it very hard. I found myself trying to think of excuses to stay, to see him first and then make my escape. You read "Twilight 22. HIDE-AND-SEEK" in category "Essay examples" But I knew that was impossible if I was going to have any chance to get away. Several times Alice offered to go get breakfast with me. Later, I told her, not yet. I stared at the arrival board, watching as flight after flight arrived on time. The flight from Seattle crept closer to the top of the board. And then, when I had only thirty minutes to make my escape, the numbers changed. His plane was ten minutes early. I had no more time. â€Å"I think I’ll eat now,† I said quickly. Alice stood. â€Å"I’ll come with you.† â€Å"Do you mind if Jasper comes instead?† I asked. â€Å"I’m feeling a little†¦Ã¢â‚¬  I didn’t finish the sentence. My eyes were wild enough to convey what I didn’t say. Jasper stood up. Alice’s eyes were confused, but – I saw to my relief- not suspicious. She must be attributing the change in her vision to some maneuver of the tracker’s rather than a betrayal by me. Jasper walked silently beside me, his hand on the small of my back, as if he were guiding me. I pretended a lack of interest in the first few airport cafes, my head scanning for what I really wanted. And there it was, around the corner, out of Alice’s sharp sight: the level-three ladies’ room. â€Å"Do you mind?† I asked Jasper as we passed. â€Å"I’ll just be a moment.† â€Å"I’ll be right here,† he said. As soon as the door shut behind me, I was running. I remembered the time I had gotten lost from this bathroom, because it had two exits. Outside the far door it was only a short sprint to the elevators, and if Jasper stayed where he said he would, I’d never be in his line of sight. I didn’t look behind me as I ran. This was my only chance, and even if he saw me, I had to keep going. People stared, but I ignored them. Around the corner the elevators were waiting, and I dashed forward, throwing my hand between the closing doors of a full elevator headed down. I squeezed in beside the irritated passengers, and checked to make sure that the button for level one had been pushed. It was already lit, and the doors closed. As soon as the door opened I was off again, to the sound of annoyed murmurs behind me. I slowed myself as I passed the security guards by the luggage carousels, only to break into a run again as the exit doors came into view. I had no way of knowing if Jasper was looking for me yet. I would have only seconds if he was following my scent. I jumped out the automatic doors, nearly smacking into the glass when they opened too slowly. Along the crowded curb there wasn’t a cab in sight. I had no time. Alice and Jasper were either about to realize I was gone, or they already had. They would find me in a heartbeat. A shuttle to the Hyatt was just closing its doors a few feet behind me. â€Å"Wait!† I called, running, waving at the driver. â€Å"This is the shuttle to the Hyatt,† the driver said in confusion as he opened the doors. â€Å"Yes,† I huffed, â€Å"that’s where I’m going.† I hurried up the steps. He looked askance at my luggage-less state, but then shrugged, not caring enough to ask. Most of the seats were empty. I sat as far from the other travelers as possible, and watched out the window as first the sidewalk, and then the airport, drifted away. I couldn’t help imagining Edward, where he would stand at the edge of the road when he found the end of my trail. I couldn’t cry yet, I told myself. I still had a long way to go. My luck held. In front of the Hyatt, a tired-looking couple was getting their last suitcase out of the trunk of a cab. I jumped out of the shuttle and ran to the cab, sliding into the seat behind the driver. The tired couple and the shuttle driver stared at me. I told the surprised cabbie my mother’s address. â€Å"I need to get there as soon as possible.† â€Å"That’s in Scottsdale,† he complained. I threw four twenties over the seat. â€Å"Will that be enough?† â€Å"Sure, kid, no problem.† I sat back against the seat, folding my arms across my lap. The familiar city began to rush around me, but I didn’t look out the windows. I exerted myself to maintain control. I was determined not to lose myself at this point, now that my plan was successfully completed. There was no point in indulging in more terror, more anxiety. My path was set. I just had to follow it now. So, instead of panicking, I closed my eyes and spent the twenty minutes’ drive with Edward. I imagined that I had stayed at the airport to meet Edward. I visualized how I would stand on my toes, the sooner to see his face. How quickly, how gracefully he would move through the crowds of people separating us. And then I would run to close those last few feet between us – reckless as always – and I would be in his marble arms, finally safe. I wondered where we would have gone. North somewhere, so he could be outside in the day. Or maybe somewhere very remote, so we could lay in the sun together again. I imagined him by the shore, his skin sparkling like the sea. It wouldn’t matter how long we had to hide. To be trapped in a hotel room with him would be a kind of heaven. So many questions I still had for him. I could talk to him forever, never sleeping, never leaving his side. I could see his face so clearly now†¦ almost hear his voice. And, despite all the horror and hopelessness, I was fleetingly happy. So involved was I in my escapist daydreams, I lost all track of the seconds racing by. â€Å"Hey, what was the number?† The cabbie’s question punctured my fantasy, letting all the colors run out of my lovely delusions. Fear, bleak and hard, was waiting to fill the empty space they left behind. â€Å"Fifty-eight twenty-one.† My voice sounded strangled. The cabbie looked at me, nervous that I was having an episode or something. â€Å"Here we are, then.† He was anxious to get me out of his car, probably hoping I wouldn’t ask for my change. â€Å"Thank you,† I whispered. There was no need to be afraid, I reminded myself. The house was empty. I had to hurry; my mom was waiting for me, frightened, depending on me. I ran to the door, reaching up automatically to grab the key under the eave. I unlocked the door. It was dark inside, empty, normal. I ran to the phone, turning on the kitchen light on my way. There, on the whiteboard, was a ten-digit number written in a small, neat hand. My fingers stumbled over the keypad, making mistakes. I had to hang up and start again. I concentrated only on the buttons this time, carefully pressing each one in turn. I was successful. I held the phone to my ear with a shaking hand. It rang only once. â€Å"Hello, Bella,† that easy voice answered. â€Å"That was very quick. I’m impressed.† â€Å"Is my mom all right?† â€Å"She’s perfectly fine. Don’t worry, Bella, I have no quarrel with her. Unless you didn’t come alone, of course.† Light, amused. â€Å"I’m alone.† I’d never been more alone in my entire life. â€Å"Very good. Now, do you know the ballet studio just around the corner from your home?† â€Å"Yes. I know how to get there.† â€Å"Well, then, I’ll see you very soon.† I hung up. I ran from the room, through the door, out into the baking heat. There was no time to look back at my house, and I didn’t want to see it as it was now – empty, a symbol of fear instead of sanctuary. The last person to walk through those familiar rooms was my enemy. From the corner of my eye, I could almost see my mother standing in the shade of the big eucalyptus tree where I’d played as a child. Or kneeling by the little plot of dirt around the mailbox, the cemetery of all the flowers she’d tried to grow. The memories were better than any reality I would see today. But I raced away from them, toward the corner, leaving everything behind me. I felt so slow, like I was running through wet sand – I couldn’t seem to get enough purchase from the concrete. I tripped several times, once falling, catching myself with my hands, scraping them on the sidewalk, and then lurching up to plunge forward again. But at last I made it to the corner. Just another street now; I ran, sweat pouring down my face, gasping. The sun was hot on my skin, too bright as it bounced off the white concrete and blinded me. I felt dangerously exposed. More fiercely than I would have dreamed I was capable of, I wished for the green, protective forests of Forks†¦ of home. When I rounded the last corner, onto Cactus, I could see the studio, looking just as I remembered it. The parking lot in front was empty, the vertical blinds in all the windows drawn. I couldn’t run anymore – I couldn’t breathe; exertion and fear had gotten the best of me. I thought of my mother to keep my feet moving, one in front of the other. As I got closer, I could see the sign inside the door. It was handwritten on hot pink paper; it said the dance studio was closed for spring break. I touched the handle, tugged on it cautiously. It was unlocked. I fought to catch my breath, and opened the door. The lobby was dark and empty, cool, the air conditioner thrumming. The plastic molded chairs were stacked along the walls, and the carpet smelled like shampoo. The west dance floor was dark, I could see through the open viewing window. The east dance floor, the bigger room, was lit. But the blinds were closed on the window. Terror seized me so strongly that I was literally trapped by it. I couldn’t make my feet move forward. And then my mother’s voice called. â€Å"Bella? Bella?† That same tone of hysterical panic. I sprinted to the door, to the sound of her voice. â€Å"Bella, you scared me! Don’t you ever do that to me again!† Her voice continued as I ran into the long, high-ceilinged room. I stared around me, trying to find where her voice was coming from. I heard her laugh, and I whirled to the sound. There she was, on the TV screen, tousling my hair in relief. It was Thanksgiving, and I was twelve. We’d gone to see my grandmother in California, the last year before she died. We went to the beach one day, and I’d leaned too far over the edge of the pier. She’d seen my feet flailing, trying to reclaim my balance. â€Å"Bella? Bella?† she’d called to me in fear. And then the TV screen was blue. I turned slowly. He was standing very still by the back exit, so still I hadn’t noticed him at first. In his hand was a remote control. We stared at each other for a long moment, and then he smiled. He walked toward me, quite close, and then passed me to put the remote down next to the VCR. I turned carefully to watch him. â€Å"Sorry about that, Bella, but isn’t it better that your mother didn’t really have to be involved in all this?† His voice was courteous, kind. And suddenly it hit me. My mother was safe. She was still in Florida. She’d never gotten my message. She’d never been terrified by the dark red eyes in the abnormally pale face before me. She was safe. â€Å"Yes,† I answered, my voice saturated with relief. â€Å"You don’t sound angry that I tricked you.† â€Å"I’m not.† My sudden high made me brave. What did it matter now? It would soon be over. Charlie and Mom would never be harmed, would never have to fear. I felt almost giddy. Some analytical part of my mind warned me that I was dangerously close to snapping from the stress. â€Å"How odd. You really mean it.† His dark eyes assessed me with interest. The irises were nearly black, just a hint of ruby around the edges. Thirsty. â€Å"I will give your strange coven this much, you humans can be quite interesting. I guess I can see the draw of observing you. It’s amazing – some of you seem to have no sense of your own self-interest at all.† He was standing a few feet away from me, arms folded, looking at me curiously. There was no menace in his face or stance. He was so very average-looking, nothing remarkable about his face or body at all. Just the white skin, the circled eyes I’d grown so used to. He wore a pale blue, long-sleeved shirt and faded blue jeans. â€Å"I suppose you’re going to tell me that your boyfriend will avenge you?† he asked, hopefully it seemed to me. â€Å"No, I don’t think so. At least, I asked him not to.† â€Å"And what was his reply to that?† â€Å"I don’t know.† It was strangely easy to converse with this genteel hunter. â€Å"I left him a letter.† â€Å"How romantic, a last letter. And do you think he will honor it?† His voice was just a little harder now, a hint of sarcasm marring his polite tone. â€Å"I hope so.† â€Å"Hmmm. Well, our hopes differ then. You see, this was all just a little too easy, too quick. To be quite honest, I’m disappointed. I expected a much greater challenge. And, after all, I only needed a little luck.† I waited in silence. â€Å"When Victoria couldn’t get to your father, I had her find out more about you. There was no sense in running all over the planet chasing you down when I could comfortably wait for you in a place of my choosing. So, after I talked to Victoria, I decided to come to Phoenix to pay your mother a visit. I’d heard you say you were going home. At first, I never dreamed you meant it. But then I wondered. Humans can be very predictable; they like to be somewhere familiar, somewhere safe. And wouldn’t it be the perfect ploy, to go to the last place you should be when you’re hiding – the place that you said you’d be. â€Å"But of course I wasn’t sure, it was just a hunch. I usually get a feeling about the prey that I’m hunting, a sixth sense, if you will. I listened to your message when I got to your mother’s house, but of course I couldn’t be sure where you’d called from. It was very useful to have your number, but you could have been in Antarctica for all I knew, and the game wouldn’t work unless you were close by. â€Å"Then your boyfriend got on a plane to Phoenix. Victoria was monitoring them for me, naturally; in a game with this many players, I couldn’t be working alone. And so they told me what I’d hoped, that you were here after all. I was prepared; I’d already been through your charming home movies. And then it was simply a matter of the bluff. â€Å"Very easy, you know, not really up to my standards. So, you see, I’m hoping you’re wrong about your boyfriend. Edward, isn’t it?† I didn’t answer. The bravado was wearing off. I sensed that he was coming to the end of his gloat. It wasn’t meant for me anyway. There was no glory in beating me, a weak human. â€Å"Would you mind, very much, if I left a little letter of my own for your Edward?† He took a step back and touched a palm-sized digital video camera balanced carefully on top of the stereo. A small red light indicated that it was already running. He adjusted it a few times, widened the frame. I stared at him in horror. â€Å"I’m sorry, but I just don’t think he’ll be able to resist hunting me after he watches this. And I wouldn’t want him to miss anything. It was all for him, of course. You’re simply a human, who unfortunately was in the wrong place, at the wrong time, and indisputably running with the wrong crowd, I might add.† He stepped toward me, smiling. â€Å"Before we begin†¦Ã¢â‚¬  I felt a curl of nausea in the pit of my stomach as he spoke. This was something I had not anticipated. â€Å"I would just like to rub it in, just a little bit. The answer was there all along, and I was so afraid Edward would see that and ruin my fun. It happened once, oh, ages ago. The one and only time my prey escaped me. â€Å"You see, the vampire who was so stupidly fond of this little victim made the choice that your Edward was too weak to make. When the old one knew I was after his little friend, he stole her from the asylum where he worked – I never will understand the obsession some vampires seem to form with you humans – and as soon as he freed her he made her safe. She didn’t even seem to notice the pain, poor little creature. She’d been stuck in that black hole of a cell for so long. A hundred years earlier and she would have been burned at the stake for her visions. In the nineteen-twenties it was the asylum and the shock treatments. When she opened her eyes, strong with her fresh youth, it was like she’d never seen the sun before. The old vampire made her a strong new vampire, and there was no reason for me to touch her then.† He sighed. â€Å"I destroyed the old one in vengeance.† â€Å"Alice,† I breathed, astonished. â€Å"Yes, your little friend. I was surprised to see her in the clearing. So I guess her coven ought to be able to derive some comfort from this experience. I get you, but they get her. The one victim who escaped me, quite an honor, actually. â€Å"And she did smell so delicious. I still regret that I never got to taste†¦ She smelled even better than you do. Sorry – I don’t mean to be offensive. You have a very nice smell. Floral, somehow†¦Ã¢â‚¬  He took another step toward me, till he was just inches away. He lifted a lock of my hair and sniffed at it delicately. Then he gently patted the strand back into place, and I felt his cool fingertips against my throat. He reached up to stroke my cheek once quickly with his thumb, his face curious. I wanted so badly to run, but I was frozen. I couldn’t even flinch away. â€Å"No,† he murmured to himself as he dropped his hand, â€Å"I don’t understand.† He sighed. â€Å"Well, I suppose we should get on with it. And then I can call your friends and tell them where to find you, and my little message.† I was definitely sick now. There was pain coming, I could see it in his eyes. It wouldn’t be enough for him to win, to feed and go. There would be no quick end like I’d been counting on. My knees began to shake, and I was afraid I was going to fall. He stepped back, and began to circle, casually, as if he were trying to get a better view of a statue in a museum. His face was still open and friendly as he decided where to start. Then he slumped forward, into a crouch I recognized, and his pleasant smile slowly widened, grew, till it wasn’t a smile at all but a contortion of teeth, exposed and glistening. I couldn’t help myself- I tried to run. As useless as I knew it would be, as weak as my knees already were, panic took over and I bolted for the emergency door. He was in front of me in a flash. I didn’t see if he used his hand or his foot, it was too fast. A crushing blow struck my chest – I felt myself flying backward, and then heard the crunch as my head bashed into the mirrors. The glass buckled, some of the pieces shattering and splintering on the floor beside me. I was too stunned to feel the pain. I couldn’t breathe yet. He walked toward me slowly. â€Å"That’s a very nice effect,† he said, examining the mess of glass, his voice friendly again. â€Å"I thought this room would be visually dramatic for my little film. That’s why I picked this place to meet you. It’s perfect, isn’t it?† I ignored him, scrambling on my hands and knees, crawling toward the other door. He was over me at once, his foot stepping down hard on my leg. I heard the sickening snap before I felt it. But then I did feel it, and I couldn’t hold back my scream of agony. I twisted up to reach for my leg, and he was standing over me, smiling. â€Å"Would you like to rethink your last request?† he asked pleasantly. His toe nudged my broken leg and I heard a piercing scream. With a shock, I realized it was mine. â€Å"Wouldn’t you rather have Edward try to find me?† he prompted. â€Å"No!† I croaked. â€Å"No, Edward, don’t-† And then something smashed into my face, throwing me back into the broken mirrors. Over the pain of my leg, I felt the sharp rip across my scalp where the glass cut into it. And then the warm wetness began to spread through my hair with alarming speed. I could feel it soaking the shoulder of my shirt, hear it dripping on the wood below. The smell of it twisted my stomach. Through the nausea and dizziness I saw something that gave me a sudden, final shred of hope. His eyes, merely intent before, now burned with an uncontrollable need. The blood – spreading crimson across my white shirt, pooling rapidly on the floor – was driving him mad with thirst. No matter his original intentions, he couldn’t draw this out much longer. Let it be quick now, was all I could hope as the flow of blood from my head sucked my consciousness away with it. My eyes were closing. I heard, as if from underwater, the final growl of the hunter. I could see, through the long tunnels my eyes had become, his dark shape coming toward me. With my last effort, my hand instinctively raised to protect my face. My eyes closed, and I drifted. How to cite Twilight 22. HIDE-AND-SEEK, Essay examples

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Nikes Product Mix free essay sample

ConverseIntroduction The increase in the number of companies and the competitive prices that the companies offer has given rise to a competitive situation in the companies (Borden, 1984). Marketing activities in companies are framed based on the ‘marketing mix’ of the company (Borden, 1984). The marketing mix framework consists of 7Ps considering the modern scenario (Booms and Bitner, 1981, cited in Rafiq and Ahmed, 1995). This is an improvement over the original marketing mix of 12 elements (Borden, 1965, cited in Rafiq and Ahmed, 1995). The marketing mix of a company plays a very crucial role in its success. This essay discusses how Nike, Inc. has become a successful brand through the proper use of the marketing mix. Nike, Inc. Nike. Inc. was pioneered by two visionaries Bill Bowerman and Phil Knight (Nike, Inc. a). Bill Bowerman was a famous track and field coach at the University of Oregon and he designed shoes that gave athletes a competitive advantage (Nike, Inc. We will write a custom essay sample on Nikes Product Mix or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page a). When he put forth his ideas, none of the companies were interested in it (Nike, Inc. a). Phil Knight proposed that the quality of running shoes manufactured in Japan could compete with that of a famous German brand (Nike, Inc. a). This initiated Phil Knight and Bill Bowman becoming partners in distributing the Tiger shoes manufactured by Onitsuka Co. in the United States(Nike, Inc. a). Phil Knight and Bill Bowman formed the Blue Ribbon Sports (BRS) and soon Bowman began improvising the Tiger shoes and he started testing them on the athletes (Nike, Inc. a). The name Nike was framed by Jeff Johnson, a full time employee at BRS in 1971 and he also designed many of Nike’s early shoes (Nike, Inc. a). In the meantime the relation between BRS and Onitsuka began to deteriorate and Phil and Knight wanted to create their own brand of athletic shoes, leading to the creation of the brand mark of the ‘Swoosh’ (Nike, Inc. a). The next level of progress came in with the outsole that had waffle type nubs for traction but were lighter than traditional shoes (Nike, Inc. a). In the 1980s, Nike became a publicly traded company but also had a fall from the position of industry leader because of production miscalculation but, the debut of signature shoe for an NBA rookie Michael Jordan helped bolster Nike’s bottom line (Nike, Inc. a). In 1987s Nike tarted a major product and marketing campaign for regaining their position and in 1989, Nike’s cross training business exploded and by end of that decade Nike regained position as the industry leader (Nike, Inc. a). During 1990s, Nike set up its world headquarters in suburban Portland, Oregano and Nike signed up with many ath letes for endorsements during the (Nike, Inc. a). Today, the company seeks innovative ways to communicate with its consumers and strives to satisfy them (Nike, Inc. a). THE MARKETING MIX OF NIKE, INC. PRODUCT MIX â€Å"The perfect product must provide value for a customer† (The Chartered Institute of Marketing, 2009, p. ). The goods or services that a company produces must be with regard to the needs and the wants of the consumers and the company must be clear if they are providing what the consumers want from them (The Chartered Institute of Marketing, 2009). â€Å"The most significant determinant variable for the demand for sports goods, its growth, and size, are: fashion, the use of value of the sports good, its market price, households’ professions and revenues, the population’s use of the equipment(the ‘equipment rate’), and the sports good’s life cycle. † (Andreff, Szymanski, 2006, p. 27). From the beginning Nike has produced its goods in accordance with the preference of the consumers, the changing trends in fashion and the buying power of their target market and innovation has been one of their key motives (Nike, Inc. a). â€Å"In May 2006, Nike launched the Nike + (NikePlus) platform, a collaboration between Nike and Apple, consisting of an Apple iPod music player, a wireless device to connect the music player to running shoes, a pair of Nike shoes with a special pocket to accept the wireless device, and membership in the iTunes and Nike + online communities (itunes. om and nikeplus. com). The Nike + co-creation platform capitalizes on the connection between running and music. The combination of innovative, mobile technology, online communities and athletic gear expands the field for co-creation† (Ramaswamy, 2008, p. 11). This is a good example of how Nike strives to bring innovation into the products. Nike also has different product lines such as Nike Action Sports, Nike Athletic Training, Nike Basketball, Nike football and Nike Running (Nike, Inc. a). Nike has also changed and developed its products and heir range with the developing technology (Nike, Inc. a). â€Å"Hence, innovation enhances business performance because the product of innovative activities makes a firm more competitive and the process of innovation transforms a firm’s internal capabilities† (Neely et al, 1998). Nike can be said to be a product oriented company because Nike delivers goods like sports shoes and sportswear to the customers and not service to its consumers but, according to Levitt (1972) â€Å"There are only industries whose service components are greater or lesser than those of other industries. Everybody is in service. Thus, Nike is a brand that wants to deliver not only goods to it consumers but also wants to instil the passion of sportsmanship in people which is evident from their mission (Nike, Inc. b). Since the product is not differ ent from the service in this case, only 4Ps of Nike have been explained in the essay. PRICE MIX â€Å"A product is only worth when customers are willing to pay for it† (The Chartered Institute of Marketing, 2009, p. 4). It should be carefully determined which means that it should not be really low or too high, but we must also have in mind that we must have a profit margin (The Chartered Institute of Marketing, 2009). Nike uses the ‘dual pricing’ strategy by which it sells the latest shoe models in premium retail outlets like Footlocker or Niketown and its old shoe models at discounters and outlets (Billington et al, 1998). Dual pricing is less risky than normal pricing of goods but, the company must have an efficient coordination in manufacturing, distribution and marketing of both old and new goods; this is effectively done by Nike making the dual pricing strategy successful (Billington et al, 1998). Nike uses the consumer conception of pricing to influence the price of their products (McConnell, 1968). Nike does this by providing goods in different price ranges and attracts people to different segments (Nike, Inc. a). PLACE (DISTRIBUTION) MIX â€Å"The place where customers buy a product, and the means of distributing your product to that place, must be appropriate and convenient for the customers† (The Chartered Institute of Marketing, 2009, p. 5). Every brand position their products in such a way that they can easily deliver the products to the consumers and this includes that the process of distribution must be ost effective (The Chartered Institute of Marketing, 2009). Nike has gradually developed their distribution channel and expanded their outlets all over the world (Nike, Inc. c). Today Nike has stores in 160 countries and six continents (Nike, Inc. c). All their stores are designed in such a way that it signifies the spirit of sports and implies Nike’s mission, â€Å"To bring inspiration and innovation to every athlete in the world* *If you have a body, you are an athlete†. (Nike, Inc. b) During 2000-2001, Nike encountered huge financial issues which was due to the miscalculation of the future demand by the company, resulting in the mass production of shoes whose models were declining in popularity (Laudon et al, 2004). The company blamed this as a software- i2’s malfunctioning (Laudon et al, 2004). But what both Nike and i2 forgot to see was that if they had had an effective base for the software and done the necessary customizing by using step by step process, Nike could have resolved this issue at an early stage (Laudon et al, 2004). Nike however fixed this problem in 2009 by spending a huge sum of money (Nike, Inc. a). This clearly shows us that though today, Nike has a much systemised channel of distribution, it did have a setback due to its carelessness. However the way they coped up with the setback is what makes them a successful company. PROMOTION MIX â€Å"Promotion is a way the company communicates what it does and what it can offer customers† (The Chartered Institute of Marketing, 2009, p. 5). Promotion includes advertising, sales promotions, trade promotions and personal selling to the consumers (Kotler, 2002, cited in Riaz and Tanveer, 2012). Nike, Inc. as a widespread promotion campaign like sale time discounts and offers (Nike, Inc. a). Apart from this, Nike has been using successful athletes and sports persons from the beginning to endorse their products (Nike, Inc. a). Steve Prefontaine was the first ambassador to Nike when it was BRS (Nike, Inc. a). Later when Nike, Inc. was developed Nike started getting famous athletes as their ambassadors; few of them were Tiger Woods and Michael Jordon (Nike, Inc. a). â€Å"The ads will still capture the corporate philosophy of grit, determination and passion of heroes and hero worship in a humor way by many top athletes† (Deng, 2009, p. 03). In 2002 Nike wanted to go beyond the concept of promoting their products, celebrities and offers so, they started the ‘Secret Tournament’ which was their first global market effort in regard to the World Cup and it’s reach was much more than all the advertisement, and promotions put together (Nike, Inc. a). Nike has expanded a lot in the last few years and it has even become the official sponsor of the Nation Football League [NFL] for the year 2012 (Nike, Inc. a). Nike also sponsor major teams like Manchester United (Anonymous, n. ). It is a general conception that when the fans of a particular team are loyal to that team, they in turn become loyal to the sponsoring brand also (Linnemann, 2007). From this it is seen that when a sports team is endorsing a brand, the fans of the particular teams get attracted to the brand sponsoring them and so they are induced to buy the products of that particular brand. Thus, both the team and the brand get popularity. This can be said to be one of the most famous methods of promotions which Nike has used in a very correct manner. Apart from this, when we look at the advertisements of Nike, â€Å"The ads will rarely focus on the product itself, but on the person wearing the product† (Deng, 2009, p. 103). This kind of advertising can make the consumer feel more drawn towards the product and will influence him to buy it. Promotion can said be an important component of the marketing activities ok Nike, Inc. CONCLUSION The marketing mix strategy of a firm is said to be the base of its success. A company should know how to make proper use of the marketing mix. As seen, Nike had a bad time because to the lack of proper use of the marketing mix. Nike has not been having a perfect marketing mix throughout its existence. It did have setbacks in the channels of distribution. They should focus more on how the products can be delivered to different regions and they must also focus as to what products are to be distributed to the different countries. Nike as a brand has not only sold its products well but has also strongly put forth the idea that anyone can be an athlete. This encourages physical activity among the people and helps them to stay fit and healthy. Nike as a brand is very successful in attracting consumers and retaining them by using many loyalty techniques. This is the main reason for the success of Nike, Inc. Words in essay- 2000 words. REFERENCE: Andreff, W. and Szymanski, S. (2006) Handbook on the Economics of Sport. Edward Elgar Publishing, p. 27 Anonymous (n. d), Official Sponsors. Available at: http://www. manutd. com/en/Club/Sponsors. aspx? sponsorid={B796C032-0FE8-4930-9E1C-33C4EB6C6C8F} (Accessed: 21 November 2012) Billington, C. Lee, L. H. and Tang, S. C. (1998) â€Å"Successful strategies for product rollovers†, Sloan Management Review, pp. 3-30 Borden, N. H. (1984), â€Å"The Concept of the marketing mix†, Journal of Advertising Research, June, pp. 7-12 Deng, T. (2009) â€Å"Just Done It Nike’s New Advertising Plan Facing Global Economic Crisis†, International Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 102-105, [Online]. Available at: www. ccsenet. org/journal. html [Accessed : 23 October 2012] Laudon K, C. Laudon J, P. , 2004 , Essentials of Management Information Systems, Managing the Digital Firm Sixth edition Available at: http://wps. prenhall. com/bp_laudon_essmis_6/21/5555/1422333. cw/content/index. tml [Accessed: 22 October 2012] Levitt, T. (1972), â€Å"Production line approach to service†, Harvard Business Review, September/October, pp. 41-52 Linnemann, J. J. T. (2007), â€Å"The effect of sponsorship on brand loyalty: The impact on current customers due to negative incidence† [Online]. Available at: http://arno. unimaas. nl/show. cgi? fid=11403 McConnell J. Douglas (1968) â€Å"The Journal of Business† Chicago Journals, Vol. 41, No. 4, pp. 439-444[Online]. Available at: http://www. jstor. org/stable/pdfplus/2351544. pdf [Accessed: 21 October 2012] Neely, A. and Hii, J. 1998), â€Å"Innovation and business performance: A literature review†. University of Cambridge. Nike, Inc. a, Available at: http://www. nikeinc. com/ [Accessed: 21 October] Nike, Inc. b, Available at: http://nikeinc. com/pages/about-nike-inc [Accessed: 21 October] Nike, Inc. c, Available at: http://nikeinc. com/pages/locations [Accessed: 21 October] Rafiq, M. and Ahmed, P. K. (1995), â€Å"Using the 7Ps as a generic marketing mix, an exploratory survey of UK and European marketing academics†, Marketing intelligence and Planning, Vol. 13, n 9. MCB University Press Ramaswamy, V. 2008),Co-creating value through customers experiences: the Nike case, Strategy amp; Leadership, Vol. 36 Iss: 5 pp. 9 – 14 [Online] Available at: http://dx. doi. org/10. 1108/10878570810902068 [Accessed: 22 October 2012] Riaz, W. and Tanveer, A. (2012), â€Å"Marketing Mix, not Branding†, Asian Journal of Business and Management Sciences, Vol. 1 No. 11, pp. 43-52 The Chartered Institute of Marketing, 2009 â€Å"Marketing and the 7Ps: a brief summary of marketing how it works† The Charted Institute of Marketing [Online]. Available at: http://www. cim. co. uk/files/7ps. pdf [Accessed: 21 October 2012]

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Free Essays on Ancestors Of The Modern Computer

Ancestors of the Modern Computer Today’s computers are used to do thousands of different tasks. They control and guide so many things that are important in current society. Computers make difficult tasks simpler, time consuming jobs shorter, and life in general easier. Man has always looked for some way to make their work quicker and easier. Probably, the first thing that ever started us in the direction conceiving the idea for the computer was the need for printing text and solving complicated mathematical calculations. Man’s first solution to making math simpler was the abacus, which is still used in some parts of the world today. Later inventions were machines with gears and wheels that could add and subtract, and ones that used punch cards to give the machine information. These instruments were not used widely, nor have any kind of an impact on their society. While they could have been put to good use, they were just little too ahead of their time. Printing and writing is another tedious task that computers simplify. Originally people had to copy entire books by hand so they could be circulated. This method would take up tremendous amounts of time. Later the idea for a printing press came about. Little letters would be etched into small wood or metal blocks. Ink would be put on the blocks and then transferred onto the paper. Even though this took less time it still took too much. First-Generation computers were first created in 1945. These machines were very large and used vacuum tubes which made the computer heat up quickly.... Free Essays on Ancestors Of The Modern Computer Free Essays on Ancestors Of The Modern Computer Ancestors of the Modern Computer Today’s computers are used to do thousands of different tasks. They control and guide so many things that are important in current society. Computers make difficult tasks simpler, time consuming jobs shorter, and life in general easier. Man has always looked for some way to make their work quicker and easier. Probably, the first thing that ever started us in the direction conceiving the idea for the computer was the need for printing text and solving complicated mathematical calculations. Man’s first solution to making math simpler was the abacus, which is still used in some parts of the world today. Later inventions were machines with gears and wheels that could add and subtract, and ones that used punch cards to give the machine information. These instruments were not used widely, nor have any kind of an impact on their society. While they could have been put to good use, they were just little too ahead of their time. Printing and writing is another tedious task that computers simplify. Originally people had to copy entire books by hand so they could be circulated. This method would take up tremendous amounts of time. Later the idea for a printing press came about. Little letters would be etched into small wood or metal blocks. Ink would be put on the blocks and then transferred onto the paper. Even though this took less time it still took too much. First-Generation computers were first created in 1945. These machines were very large and used vacuum tubes which made the computer heat up quickly....

Monday, March 2, 2020

Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus, Roman Statesman

Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus, Roman Statesman Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus (c. 519–430  BCE) was a farmer, statesman, and military leader who lived in early Rome. He considered himself a farmer above all, but when he was called to serve his country he did so well, efficiently, and without question, even though a prolonged absence from his farm could mean starvation for his family. When he served his country, he made his stint as dictator as brief as possible. For his faithful service, he became a model of Roman virtue. Fast Facts: Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus Known For: Cincinnatus was a Roman statesman who served as the kingdoms dictator during at least one time of crisis; he later became a model of Roman virtue and public service.Also Known As: Lucius Quintius CincinnatusBorn: c. 519 BCE in the Kingdom of RomeDied: c. 430 BCE in the Roman RepublicSpouse: RacillaChildren: Caeso Early Life Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus was born around 519 BCE in Rome. At the time, Rome was still a small kingdom made up of the city and its surrounding territory. Lucius was a member of the Quinctia, a patrician family that produced numerous state officials. Lucius was given the name Cincinnatus, meaning the curly-haired. Historians believe that Cincinnatuss family was wealthy; however, little else is known about his family or his early life. Consul By 462 BCE, the Roman kingdom was in trouble. Conflicts had escalated between the wealthy, powerful patricians and the lesser plebeians, who were fighting for constitutional reforms that would have placed limits on patrician authority. Dissension between these two groups eventually turned violent, weakening Roman power in the region. According to legend, Cincinnatuss son Caeso was one of the most violent offenders in the struggle between the patricians and the plebeians. To prevent the plebeians from assembling in the Roman Forum, Caeso would apparently organize gangs to push them out. Caesos activities eventually led to charges being brought against him. Rather than face justice, however, he fled to Tuscany. In 460 BCE, the Roman consul Publius Valerius Poplicola was killed by rebel plebeians. Cincinnatus was called in to take his place; in this new position, however, he apparently had only moderate success in quelling the rebellion. He eventually stepped down and returned to his farm. At the same time, the Romans were at war with the Aequi, an Italic tribe about whom historians know very little. After losing several battles, the Aequi managed to trick and trap the Romans. A few Roman horsemen then escaped to Rome to warn the Senate of their armys plight. Dictator Cincinnatus was apparently plowing his field  when he learned he had been appointed dictator, a position the Romans had created strictly for emergencies, for six months. He was asked to help defend the Romans against the neighboring Aequi, who had surrounded the Roman army and the consul Minucius in the Alban Hills. A group of Senators was sent to bring Cincinnatus the news. He accepted the appointment and dressed in his white toga before traveling to Rome, where he was given several bodyguards for protection. Cincinnatus quickly organized an army, calling together all the Roman men who were old enough to serve. He commanded them against the Aequi at the Battle of Mount Algidus, which took place in the region of Latium. Although the Romans were expected to lose, they quickly defeated the Aequi under the leadership of Cincinnatus and his Master of the Horse, Lucius Tarquitius. Cincinnatus made the defeated Aequi pass under a yoke of spears to show their subjugation. He took the Aequi leaders as prisoners and brought them to Rome for punishment. After this great victory, Cincinnatus gave up the title of dictator 16 days after it had been granted and promptly returned to his farm.​ His faithful service and lack of ambition made him a hero in the eyes of his countrymen. According to some accounts, Cincinnatus was appointed dictator again for a later Roman crisis in the wake of a grain distribution scandal. This time, a plebeian named Spurius Maelius was allegedly planning to bribe the poor as part of a plot to make himself king. There was a famine going at the time but Maelius, who was in possession of a large store of wheat, was allegedly selling it to other plebeians at a low price to curry favor with them. This worried the Roman patricians, who feared he had ulterior motives for his generosity. Once again, Cincinnatus- now 80 years old, according to Livy- was appointed dictator. He made Gaius Servilius Structus Ahala his Master of the Horse. Cincinnatus issued orders for Maelius to appear before him but Maelius fled. During the ensuing manhunt, Ahala ended up killing Maelius. A hero again, Cincinnatus resigned his post after 21 days. Death There is little information about Cincinnatuss life after his second term as dictator. He is reported to have died around 430 BCE. Legacy The life and accomplishments of Cincinnatus- whether true or merely legendary- were an important part of early Roman history. The farmer-turned-dictator became a model of Roman virtue; he was celebrated by later Romans for his loyalty and brave service. Unlike some other Roman leaders, who plotted and schemed to build their own power and wealth, Cincinnatus did not exploit his authority. After he had performed the duties required of him, he swiftly resigned and returned to his quiet life in the country. Cincinnatus is the subject of several notable artworks, including Riberas Cincinnatus Leaves the Plough to Dictate Laws to Rome. Many places are named in his honor, including Cincinnatti, Ohio, and Cincinnatus, New York. A statue of the Roman leader stands in Tuileries Garden in France. Sources Hillyard, Michael J.  Cincinnatus and the Citizen-Servant Ideal: the Roman Legends Life, Times, and Legacy. Xlibris, 2001.Livy.  Rome and Italy: the History of Rome from Its Foundation. Edited by R. M. Ogilvie, Penguin, 2004.Neel, Jaclyn.  Early Rome: Myth and Society. John Wiley Sons, Inc., 2017.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

A Critical Exploration of Roles and Professionalism Essay

A Critical Exploration of Roles and Professionalism - Essay Example Professionalism in this respect and in relation to this paper and that of teaching profession in England shall be taking to encompass teacher’s conduct, their commitment to quality and to learners and upholding of positive attitude. A desirable teacher is the one who assists the learners to learn. The roles undertaken by the teacher require both educational expertise as well as content knowledge. As briefly indicated earlier, the teacher acts as a facilitator, as a role model to the learners, as an information provider, as a leaning resources developer, as a planner and as an assessor. In England the teacher is supposed to pass on information as well as knowledge to the learners. This is presumably the primary role that the teacher plays in facilitating leaning. Here the teacher is expected to share their thoughts in assisting to illuminate the ideas that underlie a certain subject of study. As a role model the teacher should uphold good moral grounds that every learner should emulate. The teacher on the other hand should at all time act as a learning facilitator and a mentor to their learners (Shirley et al. 1984). In England there has been a move towards having a more learner centred learning. Therefore, the teacher has become more of a facilitator in the learning process. The teacher is also taken to be an assessor of learners’ competence. This is where the teacher is supposed to be an excellent examiner who is able to incorporate all the assessment issues. The teacher is supposed to come up with the required learning outcomes as well as assess the learn ers’ leaning outcomes. In the process of assessing the learners’ competence in grasping the content taught, the teacher also assess themselves as the results indicate the effectiveness of the teaching processes applied there before. This encompasses the evaluation role that the teachers should play in instilling knowledge which forms a